libfuse
passthrough_ll.c File Reference
#include <fuse_lowlevel.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stddef.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <limits.h>
#include <dirent.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <err.h>
#include <inttypes.h>

Go to the source code of this file.

Detailed Description

This file system mirrors the existing file system hierarchy of the system, starting at the root file system. This is implemented by just "passing through" all requests to the corresponding user-space libc functions. In contrast to passthrough.c and passthrough_fh.c, this implementation ises the low-level API. Its performance should be the least bad among the three, but many operations are not implemented. In particular, it is not possible to remove files (or directories) because the code necessary to defer actual removal until the file is not opened anymore would make the example much more complicated.

When writeback caching is enabled (-o writeback mount option), it is only possible to write to files for which the mounting user has read permissions. This is because the writeback cache requires the kernel to be able to issue read requests for all files (which the passthrough filesystem cannot satisfy if it can't read the file in the underlying filesystem).

Compile with:

gcc -Wall passthrough_ll.c `pkg-config fuse3 --cflags --libs` -o passthrough_ll

Source code

/*
FUSE: Filesystem in Userspace
Copyright (C) 2001-2007 Miklos Szeredi <miklos@szeredi.hu>
This program can be distributed under the terms of the GNU GPL.
See the file COPYING.
*/
#define _GNU_SOURCE
#define FUSE_USE_VERSION 31
#ifdef HAVE_CONFIG_H
#include <config.h>
#endif
#include <fuse_lowlevel.h>
#include <unistd.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stddef.h>
#include <stdbool.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <limits.h>
#include <dirent.h>
#include <assert.h>
#include <errno.h>
#include <err.h>
#include <inttypes.h>
/* We are re-using pointers to our `struct lo_inode` and `struct
lo_dirp` elements as inodes. This means that we must be able to
store uintptr_t values in a fuse_ino_t variable. The following
incantation checks this condition at compile time. */
#if defined(__GNUC__) && (__GNUC__ > 4 || __GNUC__ == 4 && __GNUC_MINOR__ >= 6) && !defined __cplusplus
_Static_assert(sizeof(fuse_ino_t) >= sizeof(uintptr_t),
"fuse_ino_t too small to hold uintptr_t values!");
#else
struct _uintptr_to_must_hold_fuse_ino_t_dummy_struct \
{ unsigned _uintptr_to_must_hold_fuse_ino_t:
((sizeof(fuse_ino_t) >= sizeof(uintptr_t)) ? 1 : -1); };
#endif
struct lo_inode {
struct lo_inode *next;
struct lo_inode *prev;
int fd;
ino_t ino;
dev_t dev;
uint64_t nlookup;
};
struct lo_data {
int debug;
int writeback;
struct lo_inode root;
};
static const struct fuse_opt lo_opts[] = {
{ "writeback",
offsetof(struct lo_data, writeback), 1 },
{ "no_writeback",
offsetof(struct lo_data, writeback), 0 },
};
static struct lo_data *lo_data(fuse_req_t req)
{
return (struct lo_data *) fuse_req_userdata(req);
}
static struct lo_inode *lo_inode(fuse_req_t req, fuse_ino_t ino)
{
if (ino == FUSE_ROOT_ID)
return &lo_data(req)->root;
else
return (struct lo_inode *) (uintptr_t) ino;
}
static int lo_fd(fuse_req_t req, fuse_ino_t ino)
{
return lo_inode(req, ino)->fd;
}
static bool lo_debug(fuse_req_t req)
{
return lo_data(req)->debug != 0;
}
static void lo_init(void *userdata,
struct fuse_conn_info *conn)
{
struct lo_data *lo = (struct lo_data*) userdata;
if (lo->writeback &&
if (lo->debug)
fprintf(stderr, "lo_init: activating writeback\n");
}
}
static void lo_getattr(fuse_req_t req, fuse_ino_t ino,
struct fuse_file_info *fi)
{
int res;
struct stat buf;
(void) fi;
res = fstatat(lo_fd(req, ino), "", &buf, AT_EMPTY_PATH | AT_SYMLINK_NOFOLLOW);
if (res == -1)
return (void) fuse_reply_err(req, errno);
fuse_reply_attr(req, &buf, 1.0);
}
static struct lo_inode *lo_find(struct lo_data *lo, struct stat *st)
{
struct lo_inode *p;
for (p = lo->root.next; p != &lo->root; p = p->next) {
if (p->ino == st->st_ino && p->dev == st->st_dev)
return p;
}
return NULL;
}
static int lo_do_lookup(fuse_req_t req, fuse_ino_t parent, const char *name,
struct fuse_entry_param *e)
{
int newfd;
int res;
int saverr;
struct lo_inode *inode;
memset(e, 0, sizeof(*e));
e->attr_timeout = 1.0;
e->entry_timeout = 1.0;
newfd = openat(lo_fd(req, parent), name, O_PATH | O_NOFOLLOW);
if (newfd == -1)
goto out_err;
res = fstatat(newfd, "", &e->attr, AT_EMPTY_PATH | AT_SYMLINK_NOFOLLOW);
if (res == -1)
goto out_err;
inode = lo_find(lo_data(req), &e->attr);
if (inode) {
close(newfd);
newfd = -1;
} else {
struct lo_inode *prev = &lo_data(req)->root;
struct lo_inode *next = prev->next;
saverr = ENOMEM;
inode = calloc(1, sizeof(struct lo_inode));
if (!inode)
goto out_err;
inode->fd = newfd;
inode->ino = e->attr.st_ino;
inode->dev = e->attr.st_dev;
next->prev = inode;
inode->next = next;
inode->prev = prev;
prev->next = inode;
}
inode->nlookup++;
e->ino = (uintptr_t) inode;
if (lo_debug(req))
fprintf(stderr, " %lli/%s -> %lli\n",
(unsigned long long) parent, name, (unsigned long long) e->ino);
return 0;
out_err:
saverr = errno;
if (newfd != -1)
close(newfd);
return saverr;
}
static void lo_lookup(fuse_req_t req, fuse_ino_t parent, const char *name)
{
struct fuse_entry_param e;
int err;
if (lo_debug(req))
fprintf(stderr, "lo_lookup(parent=%" PRIu64 ", name=%s)\n",
parent, name);
err = lo_do_lookup(req, parent, name, &e);
if (err)
fuse_reply_err(req, err);
else
fuse_reply_entry(req, &e);
}
static void lo_free(struct lo_inode *inode)
{
struct lo_inode *prev = inode->prev;
struct lo_inode *next = inode->next;
next->prev = prev;
prev->next = next;
close(inode->fd);
free(inode);
}
static void lo_forget(fuse_req_t req, fuse_ino_t ino, uint64_t nlookup)
{
struct lo_inode *inode = lo_inode(req, ino);
if (lo_debug(req)) {
fprintf(stderr, " forget %lli %lli -%lli\n",
(unsigned long long) ino, (unsigned long long) inode->nlookup,
(unsigned long long) nlookup);
}
assert(inode->nlookup >= nlookup);
inode->nlookup -= nlookup;
if (!inode->nlookup)
lo_free(inode);
}
static void lo_readlink(fuse_req_t req, fuse_ino_t ino)
{
char buf[PATH_MAX + 1];
int res;
res = readlinkat(lo_fd(req, ino), "", buf, sizeof(buf));
if (res == -1)
return (void) fuse_reply_err(req, errno);
if (res == sizeof(buf))
return (void) fuse_reply_err(req, ENAMETOOLONG);
buf[res] = '\0';
}
struct lo_dirp {
int fd;
DIR *dp;
struct dirent *entry;
off_t offset;
};
static struct lo_dirp *lo_dirp(struct fuse_file_info *fi)
{
return (struct lo_dirp *) (uintptr_t) fi->fh;
}
static void lo_opendir(fuse_req_t req, fuse_ino_t ino, struct fuse_file_info *fi)
{
int error = ENOMEM;
struct lo_dirp *d = calloc(1, sizeof(struct lo_dirp));
if (d == NULL)
goto out_err;
d->fd = openat(lo_fd(req, ino), ".", O_RDONLY);
if (d->fd == -1)
goto out_errno;
d->dp = fdopendir(d->fd);
if (d->dp == NULL)
goto out_errno;
d->offset = 0;
d->entry = NULL;
fi->fh = (uintptr_t) d;
fuse_reply_open(req, fi);
return;
out_errno:
error = errno;
out_err:
if (d) {
if (d->fd != -1)
close(d->fd);
free(d);
}
fuse_reply_err(req, error);
}
static void lo_do_readdir(fuse_req_t req, fuse_ino_t ino, size_t size,
off_t offset, struct fuse_file_info *fi, int plus)
{
struct lo_dirp *d = lo_dirp(fi);
char *buf;
char *p;
size_t rem;
int err;
(void) ino;
buf = calloc(size, 1);
if (!buf)
return (void) fuse_reply_err(req, ENOMEM);
if (offset != d->offset) {
seekdir(d->dp, offset);
d->entry = NULL;
d->offset = offset;
}
p = buf;
rem = size;
while (1) {
size_t entsize;
off_t nextoff;
if (!d->entry) {
errno = 0;
d->entry = readdir(d->dp);
if (!d->entry) {
if (errno && rem == size) {
err = errno;
goto error;
}
break;
}
}
nextoff = telldir(d->dp);
if (plus) {
struct fuse_entry_param e;
err = lo_do_lookup(req, ino, d->entry->d_name, &e);
if (err)
goto error;
entsize = fuse_add_direntry_plus(req, p, rem,
d->entry->d_name,
&e, nextoff);
} else {
struct stat st = {
.st_ino = d->entry->d_ino,
.st_mode = d->entry->d_type << 12,
};
entsize = fuse_add_direntry(req, p, rem,
d->entry->d_name,
&st, nextoff);
}
if (entsize > rem)
break;
p += entsize;
rem -= entsize;
d->entry = NULL;
d->offset = nextoff;
}
fuse_reply_buf(req, buf, size - rem);
free(buf);
return;
error:
free(buf);
fuse_reply_err(req, err);
}
static void lo_readdir(fuse_req_t req, fuse_ino_t ino, size_t size,
off_t offset, struct fuse_file_info *fi)
{
lo_do_readdir(req, ino, size, offset, fi, 0);
}
static void lo_readdirplus(fuse_req_t req, fuse_ino_t ino, size_t size,
off_t offset, struct fuse_file_info *fi)
{
lo_do_readdir(req, ino, size, offset, fi, 1);
}
static void lo_releasedir(fuse_req_t req, fuse_ino_t ino, struct fuse_file_info *fi)
{
struct lo_dirp *d = lo_dirp(fi);
(void) ino;
closedir(d->dp);
free(d);
fuse_reply_err(req, 0);
}
static void lo_create(fuse_req_t req, fuse_ino_t parent, const char *name,
mode_t mode, struct fuse_file_info *fi)
{
int fd;
struct fuse_entry_param e;
int err;
if (lo_debug(req))
fprintf(stderr, "lo_create(parent=%" PRIu64 ", name=%s)\n",
parent, name);
fd = openat(lo_fd(req, parent), name,
(fi->flags | O_CREAT) & ~O_NOFOLLOW, mode);
if (fd == -1)
return (void) fuse_reply_err(req, errno);
fi->fh = fd;
err = lo_do_lookup(req, parent, name, &e);
if (err)
fuse_reply_err(req, err);
else
fuse_reply_create(req, &e, fi);
}
static void lo_open(fuse_req_t req, fuse_ino_t ino,
struct fuse_file_info *fi)
{
int fd;
char buf[64];
if (lo_debug(req))
fprintf(stderr, "lo_open(ino=%" PRIu64 ", flags=%d)\n",
ino, fi->flags);
/* With writeback cache, kernel may send read requests even
when userspace opened write-only */
if (lo_data(req)->writeback &&
(fi->flags & O_ACCMODE) == O_WRONLY) {
fi->flags &= ~O_ACCMODE;
fi->flags |= O_RDWR;
}
/* With writeback cache, O_APPEND is handled by the kernel.
This breaks atomicity (since the file may change in the
underlying filesystem, so that the kernel's idea of the
end of the file isn't accurate anymore). In this example,
we just accept that. A more rigorous filesystem may want
to return an error here */
if (lo_data(req)->writeback && (fi->flags & O_APPEND))
fi->flags &= ~O_APPEND;
sprintf(buf, "/proc/self/fd/%i", lo_fd(req, ino));
fd = open(buf, fi->flags & ~O_NOFOLLOW);
if (fd == -1)
return (void) fuse_reply_err(req, errno);
fi->fh = fd;
fuse_reply_open(req, fi);
}
static void lo_release(fuse_req_t req, fuse_ino_t ino, struct fuse_file_info *fi)
{
(void) ino;
close(fi->fh);
fuse_reply_err(req, 0);
}
static void lo_read(fuse_req_t req, fuse_ino_t ino, size_t size,
off_t offset, struct fuse_file_info *fi)
{
struct fuse_bufvec buf = FUSE_BUFVEC_INIT(size);
if (lo_debug(req))
fprintf(stderr, "lo_read(ino=%" PRIu64 ", size=%zd, "
"off=%lu)\n", ino, size, (unsigned long) offset);
buf.buf[0].fd = fi->fh;
buf.buf[0].pos = offset;
}
static void lo_write_buf(fuse_req_t req, fuse_ino_t ino,
struct fuse_bufvec *in_buf, off_t off,
struct fuse_file_info *fi)
{
(void) ino;
ssize_t res;
struct fuse_bufvec out_buf = FUSE_BUFVEC_INIT(fuse_buf_size(in_buf));
out_buf.buf[0].fd = fi->fh;
out_buf.buf[0].pos = off;
if (lo_debug(req))
fprintf(stderr, "lo_write(ino=%" PRIu64 ", size=%zd, off=%lu)\n",
ino, out_buf.buf[0].size, (unsigned long) off);
res = fuse_buf_copy(&out_buf, in_buf, 0);
if(res < 0)
fuse_reply_err(req, -res);
else
fuse_reply_write(req, (size_t) res);
}
static struct fuse_lowlevel_ops lo_oper = {
.init = lo_init,
.lookup = lo_lookup,
.forget = lo_forget,
.getattr = lo_getattr,
.readlink = lo_readlink,
.opendir = lo_opendir,
.readdir = lo_readdir,
.readdirplus = lo_readdirplus,
.releasedir = lo_releasedir,
.create = lo_create,
.open = lo_open,
.release = lo_release,
.read = lo_read,
.write_buf = lo_write_buf
};
int main(int argc, char *argv[])
{
struct fuse_args args = FUSE_ARGS_INIT(argc, argv);
struct fuse_session *se;
struct fuse_cmdline_opts opts;
struct lo_data lo = { .debug = 0,
.writeback = 0 };
int ret = -1;
lo.root.next = lo.root.prev = &lo.root;
lo.root.fd = -1;
if (fuse_parse_cmdline(&args, &opts) != 0)
return 1;
if (opts.show_help) {
printf("usage: %s [options] <mountpoint>\n\n", argv[0]);
ret = 0;
goto err_out1;
} else if (opts.show_version) {
printf("FUSE library version %s\n", fuse_pkgversion());
ret = 0;
goto err_out1;
}
if (fuse_opt_parse(&args, &lo, lo_opts, NULL)== -1)
return 1;
lo.debug = opts.debug;
lo.root.fd = open("/", O_PATH);
lo.root.nlookup = 2;
if (lo.root.fd == -1)
err(1, "open(\"/\", O_PATH)");
se = fuse_session_new(&args, &lo_oper, sizeof(lo_oper), &lo);
if (se == NULL)
goto err_out1;
goto err_out2;
if (fuse_session_mount(se, opts.mountpoint) != 0)
goto err_out3;
fuse_daemonize(opts.foreground);
/* Block until ctrl+c or fusermount -u */
if (opts.singlethread)
ret = fuse_session_loop(se);
else
ret = fuse_session_loop_mt(se, opts.clone_fd);
err_out3:
err_out2:
err_out1:
free(opts.mountpoint);
while (lo.root.next != &lo.root)
lo_free(lo.root.next);
if (lo.root.fd >= 0)
close(lo.root.fd);
return ret ? 1 : 0;
}

Definition in file passthrough_ll.c.